Scientists Find Mitochondrial Complex II Declines with Age

A new study has found the activity of mitochondrial complex II, which is a key metabolic enzyme found in human skin cells, declines as humans age.

These findings, as published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, help scientists at Newcastle University, UK, better understand human skin cells. With this knowledge, the researchers can create potential anti-aging treatments and cosmetic products specialized to work against the decline in the enzyme’s activity levels.

With these results, scientists can develop more treatments for age-related diseases, such as cancer, with the understanding of how other body organs age.

Reflections from the Study’s Leading Professor

The leaders of the study were Mark Birch-Machin, professor of molecular dermatology at Newcastle University and Amy Bowman, Ph.D., research associate at Newcastle University's Institute of Cellular Medicine, along with part of Birch-Machin’s research group. Birch-Machin shared his insights about the research.

"As our bodies age we see that the batteries in our cells run down, known as decreased bio-energy and harmful free radicals increase. This process is easily seen in our skin as increased fine lines, wrinkles and sagging appears.

"Our research means that we now have a specific biomarker, or a target, for developing and screening anti-aging treatments and cosmetic creams that may counter this decline in bio-energy.

"There is now a possibility of finding anti-aging treatments, which can be tailored to differently aged and differently pigmented skin, and with the additional possibility to address the aging process elsewhere in our bodies."

The Research
To determine if there was a difference in activity as age increases, the complex II activity was measured in 27 donors, aged 6 through 72.

Samples were taken from a sun-protected area of skin, and techniques were used to measure the activities of the key enzymes within mitochondria. The mitochondria are involved in producing the skin cell’s energy derived from the epidermis and dermis, or higher and lower levels of skin.

The complex II activity showed cells derived from the lower levels declined with age, per unit of mitochondria. The amount of enzyme protein decreased due to the decline, and the decrease was only examined in the cells that stopped reproducing.

Continuing Studies
Future studies will now have to complete the requirement in setting up techniques to monitor anti-aging approaches in human skin, while also completely understanding skin’s functional consequences and other tissues.

"Newcastle University is pioneering research into aging as it has long been thought that mitochondria play an important role in the aging process, however the exact role has remained unclear,” said Bowman. “Our work brings us one step closer to understanding how these vital cell structures may be contributing to human aging, with the hope of eventually specifically targeting areas of the mitochondria in an attempt to counteract the signs of aging."

A recent study on mice showed the activity of complex II is lower in the skin of naturally aged older mice, in comparison to the skin of younger mice.

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Many of the primary ingredients in our serums target the support of mitochondria. Of special note is the NANO-LIPOBELLE™ DN CoQ10 ingredient in our TelomErase 6-in-1 Multi-Corrective Serum. Here's a study on the positive, supportive effects of this product on mitochondria:

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Men's Standards Of Beauty Around The World

Men make up a good proportion of our customers at, and there is worldwide increasing demand for skincare and haircare products that provide solutions for aging and health. 

Here's an interesting video that shows just how drastically the physical attributes of the "ideal man" vary across 12 different countries:

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Mix Serum with your Foundation for Better Results!

Mix your foundation with a stellar serum like TelomErase 6-in-1 Multi-Corrective Serum

Tips from beauty site LillyRose @julietly: how to mix serums with your foundation for better results:

Foundations do so much more for our skin than just even out and conceal. Many foundations nowadays have healing properties to help improve skin. Rather than go out and buy a whole new bottle of foundation, you can make your own miracle by following the 5 ways to mix foundation.

1. Oil- For people with dry skin, mixing a foundation with one to two drops of jojoba oil will make the foundation apply smoothly over any dry spots. For people with acne-prone skin, a drop or two of tea tree oil will make your foundation into an acne-fighting foundation.

2. Moisturizer- This is the perfect way to create your own BB cream at home. Mix a drop of foundation with moisturizer/ face cream for a BB cream that matches your skin perfectly!

3. Serum- One of my favorite ingredients to mix with foundation. My skin has been loving the TelomErase Serum. I put one drop of this serum on the back of my hand and add two drops of foundation. I mix the two together and I end up with a foundation that covers and works to erase dark spots, brightens, and moisturizes. RevivSerums TelomErase Serum has really helped my foundation step it up. Sometimes my foundation emphasizes dry spots around my eyes and nose area. Now, my face feels soft and hydrated because this serum has the same texture and moisturizes like an oil. Whether I have my makeup on or my makeup off, my skin just looks brighter and more radiant. I love how soft and smooth my face looks after mixing this serum in to my foundation! (Tip: When mixing serums with your foundation make sure you apply the mixed foundation quickly to your skin because serums are meant to absorbed quickly or it will become dry and hard to apply.)

4. Other foundations- I know we have all done this before. We have stood at the makeup display, debating between two bottles of foundation, unsure which one really matches our skin tone. After standing there for a full hour, I go home and find out that I still bought the wrong color. To fix this mistake, I mix my foundation with another bottle of foundation. I add a drop of foundation of the back of my hand and mix it with another drop or two of the other foundation to create a foundation that actually matches my skin.

5. Concealer- Sometimes foundation doesn’t cover as much as we like, rather than buying a whole new bottle of foundation, I mix my foundation with a bit of concealer. I take my concealer and apply a small amount to the back of my hand, then I apply two drop of foundation and mix well. So my face doesn’t look cakey, I apply this mixture with a beautyblender.

Get remarkable 6-in-1 Multi-Corrective TelomErase Serum here!

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All about telomeres, telomerase and aging

Best skincare product for telomeres

Excerpts from an article from the London Times on telomeres, telomerase, and a new book recently published titled, "The Telomerase Revolution."

Telomerase activation just might lead to cures for ageing itself
Apart from your germ cells and some stem cells, all the other cells in your body shut down their telomerase genes, with the result that their telomeres get shorter with each cell division. Age is not the accumulation of wear and tear; it’s the shortening of telomeres, leading — we are still not entirely sure how — to a slowdown in the rate at which damaged molecules are repaired which in turn leads to a greater number of damaged cells.

An analogy may help. My mobile phone currently has a cracked front; I’m living with that till I am next due an upgrade. If upgrades come round quickly, most mobile phones are in good order. If they come round more slowly, more people have damaged mobile phones. As you age, your cells upgrade their molecules more slowly, because their telomeres are shorter. So there are more damaged cells.

What startles me about Dr Fossel’s book is his evidence that this phenomenon explains all the chronic diseases of ageing, even ones such as dementia. Until recently, it was thought that these diseases could not be linked to telomere shortening because they involve cells that do not divide: neurons, for instance. But we now know that other cells called microglia, which do divide, are crucial to the functioning of neurons. A similar argument applies to heart cells and the cells that line arteries.

In 1999 scientists working for Geron, a biotech firm, demonstrated that adding telomerase could reset the clock of ageing and rejuvenate a cell. They went on to show that they could take skin cells from an old person, treat them with telomerase, and grow skin typical of a young person. All it takes now, says Dr Fossel, is to work out how to boost telomerase in our cells in a safe way. Not a trivial problem, but probably not an insuperable one, in the rapidly advancing state of gene therapy.

Dr Fossel has founded a company, Telocyte, to try this approach for people with Alzheimer’s. He may not succeed, but if somebody does, the implications are profound. Suppose people could take a course of pills or injections to reverse dementia, Parkinson’s, heart disease or osteoporosis. Suppose that people in their nineties could live genuinely “healthy” lives, as if they were fifty, not the managed decline that the WHO report recommends.

In such a world, the costs of treating chronic diseases of old age, and of social care for the elderly could fall. The problem of an ever-smaller working population supporting an ever-growing population of the infirm elderly could disappear, as 90-year-olds went back into full-time jobs. On the other hand, the decline in world population growth — with a stable level expected by 2080 or so — might eventually reverse, creating another population boom.

Fanciful? Maybe, but given what we now know about telomeres, and the mechanism that lies behind ageing, it is not as mad as assuming the world will continue as it is. The WHO’s vision of a world in 2050 in which governments are devoting much more money and effort to making people comfortable in nursing homes as they live with chronic dementia, disability and decline may well be even more implausible. The future is not just a straight-line extrapolation of the past.

[Get in on the "Telomerase Revolution" with our remarkable TelomErase 6-in-1 Multi-Corrective Triple Telomere Targeting Serum!  ]

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Addressing greying hair isn't just a vanity issue; it's a scalp and skin health issue too.

Asian man examining premature greying hair

Addressing greying hair isn't just a vanity issue; it's a scalp and skin health issue too.

Premature greying of the hair is a condition known as canities; the diminishing of pigment in hair producing a range of colors from normal to white that is perceived as gray.

It is a complex multi-factorial process mainly considered to be an interplay of nutritional, genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional deficiencies like vitamin B12 deficiency, severe iron deficiency, chronic protein loss, copper deficiency are often found associated with premature greying of hairs. Other factors that have been incriminated are low serum ferritin, and low serum calcium and vitamin D3 levels.

Smoking is another factor that is considered to be related to premature greying of hair. Smoking results in generation of huge amount of reactive oxygen species leading to increased oxidative stress culminating into damage to melanin producing cells, melanocytes. Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays is considered to initiate similar processes in hair follicles resulting in premature greying of hair.

It turns out that a key factor in hair color loss happens to be the buildup of hydrogen peroxide in the scalp and hair follicles. As we age, our bodies become less able to neutralize that hydrogen peroxide, which interferes with an enzyme that is responsible for producing the pigment in hair. The graying begins when the synthesis of melanin (the natural pigment that gives hair its color) is disrupted.

Another recent study in Nature Medicine suggests that sun damage may very well speed up the graying of hair. The study found that when UV exposure damaged skin, melanin-producing stem cells migrated upward to the skin to produce protective pigment (a tan) but abandoned their position in the hair follicle.

While there are many other factors that can contribute to graying hair (genetics, ethnicity, stress etc.), these studies suggest there are steps you can take to slow down or minimize graying hair:

The revolutionary ingredients, like Greyverse and Darkenyl, found in our RevivHair REV Stimulating Serum may help prevent hydrogen peroxide buildup and target tyrosinase to help prevent the loss of hair color and the appearance of darker hair, naturally without dyes or pigments. Another included ingredients (also mentioned in the study) may help: Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase.

Additionally, wearing a hat or applying a UV protection product for the hair (more specifically, the scalp) whenever you're outside, may help as well. Wearing a hat to shield UV damage is something we should be doing anyway!

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